"How prevalent is the Jewish belief in reincarnation
today? How does it differ from the Asian belief? What do the
Rabbis think of it?"
cannot trace any scriptures which support the concept of reincarnation of souls."
Les & Edith Johnson
The root of the word "Torah" is the verb "to instruct." Torah's primary
function is to teach us how to live Jewishly, in harmony with G-d's will.
As such, the basic levels of scriptural interpretation lead to a practical understanding
of mitzvot and related Jewish values.
The Torah, however, is a multi-layered
document. Many of its deeper levels of interpretation are not readily accessible;
and they may not lend themselves to obvious, practical application in daily life.
As such, these more esoteric aspects of Torah are not of interest to significant
segments of the Jewish population, including some rabbis and scholars.
many Jews are surprised to learn, or may even wish to deny, that reincarnation
- the "revolving" of souls through a succession of lives, or "gilgulim"
- is an integral part of Jewish belief. But this teaching has always been
around. And it is firmly rooted in source-verses.
Ramban,* one of the greatest commentators on the Torah (and on the Talmud),
and a seminal figure in Jewish history, hints several times that reincarnation
is the key to penetrating the deep mysteries involved in the mitzvah of yibum
(the obligation of the brother of a childless, deceased man to marry the widow).
In his explanation of Gen 38:8, he insists that Yehudah and his sons were aware
of the secret of reincarnation, and that this was a major factor in their respective
attitudes towards Tamar.*
The Jewish understanding of reincarnation is different
from Buddhist doctrines. It in no way leads to fatalism. At every point of moral
decision in his life, a Jew has complete free choice. If not for freedom
of choice, how unfair it would be of G-d to make demands of us - especially when
reward and punishment is involved! Reincarnation does not imply pre-determination.
It is, rather, an opportunity for rectification and soul-perfection.
ARI explained it most simply: every Jew must fulfill all 613 mitzvot, and if he
doesn't succeed in one lifetime, he comes back again and again until he finishes.
For this reason, events in a person's life may lead him towards certain places,
encounters, etc., in ways that may or may not make sense. Divine providence
provides each person with the opportunities he needs to fulfill those particular
mitzvot necessary for the perfection of his soul. But the responsibility
lies with us. At the actual moment of decision in any given situation, the
choice is ours.
One of the ways in which heaven maintains our ability to exercise
complete freedom of choice is by not allowing us conscious knowledge of previous
incarnations. Consequently, it might seem to some people that there is little
practical benefit in being aware of this doctrine. Furthermore, many scholars
contend that these mystical concepts can easily be misunderstood, or carried to
erroneous and misleading conclusions. We can therefore understand why this
and similar subjects are only hinted at in scripture, and why some knowledge and
a great deal of determination are often required in order to gain access to this
information. In Zefat, however, reincarnation of souls has long been a popular
* An acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (Nachmonides),
1195-1270. In the Hebrew edition by Rabbi Charles Chavel (Mosad HaRav Kook) on
the cited verse, many cross-references may be found to other verses and other
classic sources and commentators.
For an English treatment
of the Jewish doctrine of reincarnation, see the running translation and commentary
of Shaar Gilgulim (Gate of Reincarnations) on KabbalaOnline.org.
In the English
edition of Derech Hashem by Rabbi Moshe-Chaim Luzzatto, The Way of G-d as translated
by Aryeh Kaplan (Feldheim, 1983), II:3:10 (page 125) plus notes 39-40 (pp. 342-3)
provides an English list of Torah sources on this topic in both scripture and
P.S. To learn
more in-depth details about how reincarnation assists the rectification of souls,
read the new English translation of Gate
of Reincarnations with commentary at KabbalaOnline