Shabbat Laws #3

Translated/adapted from "A Summary of the Shabbat Laws" (published by Machon Ohaley Shem)
Laws 1-21

Laws 22-53

Laws 78-84:
Prohibited Carrying
Laws 85-103:
The Shabbat Evening Prayers
Laws 54-77
Lighting Candles
Law # 54
The Sages established that on Shabbos, every room should have a lit candle, for the sake of family harmony, so that no one would accidentally stumble. In our days, electric lights, which shine into different rooms, count as candles for these purposes. (These candles or lights are lit before Shabbos begins). However, the main mitzvah of lighting candles is to have them at the table where we eat our Shabbos night meal. These are the candles that Jewish women light and bless over on Friday evening before sunset. Besides preserving family harmony (so that no one would be unhappy eating in the dark), these candles are a primary factor in the pleasure of Shabbos. This is such an important mitzvah, that if a Jew cannot afford candles, he or she must beg for them. One who keeps the mitzvah is rewarded with abundant blessings.
Law # 55
At the Shabbos table, two candles are lit. These remind us of the two commands for Shabbos, “observe” and “remember”. Many women add a candle for each child born in the family. Also, if a lady accidentally missed lighting, she should always add a candle to remind herself to be careful in lighting Shabbos.
Law # 56
While both men and women are required to have Shabbos candles lit in their homes, the wife takes precedence in performing the mitzvah (even if her husband wishes to fulfill the command), because she is usually the one at home preparing for Shabbos and therefore will be more careful to fulfill the mitzvah. Lighting should be with joy since a woman bring blessings to her family through this mitzvah, in particular blessings for holy children and long life to her husband. However, the husband may help in preparing the Shabbos candles, especially in lighting the wicks, so that afterwards they are easy for the wife to re-kindle. When a woman gave birth, it is customary for her husband to light the candles the first following Shabbos.
Law # 57
 One should be careful not to light Shabbos candles too early in the afternoon (before ‘plag hamincha’—approximately 1 ¼  hours before sunset—the exact time can be determined by a local Rabbinic authority), because it would not be clear that the lighting is for the sake of Shabbos, and also the accompanying blessing may thus be said in vain. On the other hand, it is forbidden to light after sunset because it is already Shabbos. In most locales, the customary time to light is 18 minutes before sunset.
Law # 58
The candle should be lit so that the wick burns well. Then the woman should cover her eyes and recite the blessing “Baruch Ata Ado-nai Elo-heinu Melech Ha’olam asher kidishanu b’mitzvotav vitzivanu l’hadlik ner shel Shabbat” (some close with “Shabbat Kodesh”)—“Blessed are You, G-d our L-rd, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to light the (holy) Shabbat candle.” What is unique about this mitzvah is that the blessing is recited after the action was performed, unlike most mitzvahs where the blessing precedes the deed (for example we bless on food before benefiting from it). This is because, if a woman would bless, she would already have accepted Shabbat, and then lighting a flame would be forbidden. The reason for covering her eyes is so that the woman will not enjoy the candles’ light until after reciting the blessing. In this way, once she has blessed and removes her hands from her eyes, then the blessing can precede her enjoyment as with other mitzvahs.
Law # 59
One should bless upon the candles that are on or near the Shabbos table where the meals are eaten, so that we enjoy their light while eating our festive meals. It is preferable to light and bless on the candles when they are already in their location on or near the table, as opposed to lighting somewhere else and then transferring the candles.
Law # 60
Women accept upon themselves the Shabbat once they have lit the Shabbos candles on or near the table. Therefore it is preferable that a woman prays the Lawday afternoon prayer before lighting. However, the other family members may continue doing activities prohibited on Shabbos until sunset, when they too accept Shabbos. Also, the wife may directly ask other family members to do Shabbat prohibited activities until sunset, even if she will benefit from these. If a man is lighting Shabbos candles, he (or someone else) should accept upon themselves the Shabbat. Because a woman accepts Shabbos when she lights, it is recommended that she extinguish the match she used by placing it on a non-flammable surface and allow it to self-extinguish, as opposed to blowing or waving it out, which is forbidden on Shabbos.
Law # 61
Previous to her lighting Shabos candles, and in case of emergency, a woman may make a condition that she will not accept Shabbos upon herself immediately upon lighting, but will do so shortly afterwards. However, if she personally cannot accept Shabbos even shortly after lighting, her husband should do so in her stead, but it is nevertheless preferable he himself should light, bless and accept Shabbos upon himself. In a case where she lit, but neither the husband nor wife was able to accept Shabbos, they should extinguish the candles; the blessing said was in vain. The wife or husband relight and bless later, before Shabbos, when at least one of them is prepared to accept Shabbos.
Law # 62
If a woman lit but accidentally forgot to bless, she may do so later as long as the candles are still burning. In such a case, she should cover her eyes to not see the candle light and then bless, and only then allow herself to enjoy their light. The reason she may still bless is that the main part of the mitzvah is to benefit and use the candlelight, and not merely to light the candles. However a woman should not intentionally delay the blessing,which includes the words “and we are commanded to light”, referring to the action of lighting the candles. If a woman forgot to light until after sunset, but it is still not halachically considered night time, she may have a gentile light one candle for her, near or on the Shabbos meal table, and then she may bless on it before enjoying its light.
Law # 63
Young men who do not live at home should light a Shabbos candle in their rooms. This is true even if they eat their Shabbos meal elsewhere, and only sleep in their room, because one reason for the Shabbos candle is to prevent people from bumping themselves or falling in the dark.
Law # 64
Whether married or not, a man who is hosted on Shabbos in a special guest room at someone else’s home should light a Shabbos candle in that room. In the case where a guest merely sleeps in his hosts’s house and not in a designated room, but eats his own food, there is no need to light as long as someone in his own home lights Shabbos candles. If at the guest’s own home no one lights, he should take part in his host’s lighting by paying for some part of the candles, wicks, etc., or by having the host give him part of the candles as a gift. However, if the guest is also eating with his host, he is considered one of the family and is included in their lighting, and therefore does not need to light at all. Since lighting Shabbos candles is a particularly beloved mitzvah to Jewish women, it has become the custom that even as a guest, a woman lights her candles next to the hostess’s candles on or near the Shabbos table.
Law # 65
If several families are eating together at one table, and none of them is the host, they may all light and bless on their candles at the one table, because the more light, the more happiness and harmony there is in enjoying the candles’ light. However, not more than one family should light on a single candelabra. Another option is that a family may light in their designated room even thought they do not eat there; or they can light in a friend’s room if the friend will eat there, and as long as the friend did not yet light there.
Law # 66
Shabbos candles should burn long enough to enjoy their light until night and during the meal. If the candles did not burn until night began, or if no one benefited from their light, the blessing upon the candles was in vain. However, if someone ate their Shabbos meal early while still daylight, and sat next to the candles, the blessing is not in vain. Nor is the blessing said in vain if the candles burned until close to dark, and part of the room (besides the eating area) would be dim without their light, and their light was used for completing some action (besides simply enjoying the light).
Law # 67
If someone lit and blessed on their Shabbos candles in a place which is not used on Shabbos (even if afterwards the candles were moved to a more trafficked location), the blessing was in vain, because at the time of the lighting, it was not obvious that this was being done in honor of Shabbos. However, if someone lit in a place which needs light on Shabbos, and very shortly thereafter moved the candles to somewhere which does not, the blessing was not in vain.
Law # 68
A blind woman may bless upon the Shabbos candles because she, too, benefits from their light, since other people guide her using the light. However, if her husband can see, it is preferable that he recite the blessing. If, though, more that one family is eating at one table and lit their candles there, she should not make the blessing. This is because the blessing is recited (even by several women) due to added joy in seeing the extra candlelight, which a blind woman can not experience.
Law # 69
It is customary to have two candles lit in the synagogue on Shabbos. However, no blessing is recited on these because they are lit for the purpose of honoring Shabbos and not for the use of their light.
Law # 70
As we light candles for Shabbos, so too are we required to light candles for the holidays. On these we bless “Blessed are You, G-d, L-rd of the world, Who has sanctified us in His commandments and commanded us to kindle the holiday candle.” To prevent confusion, the blessing is recited after the kindling, as is done on Shabbos, even though the reverse is halachically permitted on holidays. On the holiday, it is forbidden to heat and melt a wax candle, or scrape its bottom to be flat, in order to adhere it to the candleholder.
Law # 71
The Lubavitcher Rebbe was foremost in promoting the lighting of a single Shabbos  and holiday candle by unmarried women and girls, even those living at home and whose mothers light. He urged that a girl begin lighting even when she is too young to understand the significance of the candle—even before age 3. Upon the occasion of her first lighting she should also recite the blessing “shehechiyanu” unless she has already reached the age of Bas Mitzvah (12). An unmarried woman or girl should light at or near the Shabbos table. She should light before her mother, so that she not lose her chance to bless through being exempted by her mother’s kindling, and also that her mother may be still permitted to assist her to light. It is also desirable for all women and girls to give some coins to charity before lighting Shabbos candles. An unmarried girl should have her own charity box. One must be careful not to move the charity box after she has lit Shabbos candles.

Law # 72
There are many details regarding the substance candles, oils, and wicks are made of for use as Shabbos candles, how to prepare them, and what to do if a non-permitted substance was lit as a Shabbos candle. Here are only some of the laws: It is especially beautiful to light using olive oil, or at least another kosher oil. If using prepared candles, one should choose the type whose light burns the most luscent. If someone wishes to learn at night using the Shabbos candle light, he or she should do so only with prepared candles (oil lights are forbidden for this purpose). It is customary (often for the husband) to light and extinguish the candles, both oil and prepared, before the actual lighting, in order that they burn well later when it is for sake of the mitzvah.

Law # 73
On Shabbos, it is forbidden to place a vessel under the lights to catch the dripping oil. However it is permitted to place such a vessel before Shabbos, and it is permitted to move this vessel if no oil dripped inside. It is also permitted to place such a vessel on Shabbos if a permitted (non-muktzeh) object, that can not be shaken out and is of more value than the oil, was also in the vessel when it was originally placed under the Shabbos lights. It is also permissible to have such a receptacle vessel under a table, and that after the meal, the table be removed and this vessel catches oil dripping from a suspended Shabbos light. On Shabbos, it is permitted to place a vessel which can catch a wax candle in case it topples. Also, such a vessel may be placed on Shabbos to catch sparks, but this vessel may not contain liquid for extinguishing the sparks. It is forbidden to place water under a candle even before Shabbos. But, before Shabbos, it is permitted to put water underneath oil, in order to raise oil higher in its vessel. Before Shabbos (and before or during some holidays), it is permitted to wedge a candle into sand or dirt.

Law #74

One may not open a door or window which is near a candle that may be blown out by the wind. This rule applies even if it is not a windy day because the wind could pick up just at the second that the door or window was opened. Although it is usually permissible to do something that will unintentionally cause a forbidden action, in this case it is not so. This is compared to someone 'who decapitates an animal but did not intend to kill it' -meaning that if someone allows wind to enter the room, the candle cannot help but be extinguished. If the door is already open, it is permissible to close the door so the candle will not blow out, and this is not considered increasing the flame. If the wind caused by opening and closing the door could cause the candle to go out, one should be careful to gently open and close the door (assuming that moving the door at all will not definitely extinguish the candle).

Law #75

One may not open a door that is near a fireplace because the wind which enters will increase the flame. If there is only a gentle breeze, one may still not open the door. This is based on the fact that the wind can suddenly pick up and increase the flames. If there is no possibility of any wind entering from the opening the door, one may do so. (All of the above applies for Shabbat, but on holidays, one may open a door even if it will increase the flames). If the door next to the fireplace is open, one may close it. The reason for this is that one's intent is not that the fire should be extinguished (which would be a prohibited act), but rather to prevent the flame from increasing.

Law #76

If one mistakenly left a wax candle on a tray since before Shabbat, and now one needs to use the tray, it is permissible to shake the tray so that the candle will fall onto the ground, as long as one's intent is not that the candle be extinguished. Even if the candle does go out from the fall, this is alright because it was not a guaranteed result. If one does not really need the tray, it is better to hint to a gentile to shake the candle off the tray. It is forbidden to shake off a candle made of oil because any movement will cause the oil to heat or extinguish the candle. One may ask a gentile to shake off an oil light. If one needs the space where the tray is, one may gently remove it even if the candle on it is made of oil.

Law #77

One may place an earthenware vessel over the candle so that it won't burn the ceiling, but leave a gap, so air can enter in and the candle won't be extinguished. It is forbidden to snuff a candle on Shabbat, except in the case if an invalid specifically for whom lack of sleep could be dangerous, or if one has any suspicion of being attacked by murderous bandits if they would see the light (saving life takes precedence over keeping Shabbat).
However, if the danger is only to ones property and one's life, or if the invalid is only going to be troubled but not endangered at all by the candle-light, one may not extinguish the candle. Regarding electric lights: florescent bulbs are less problematic halachically than incandescent ones. Therefore, in a situation of danger, one should turn off (or only leave on from before Shabbat) those lights which are necessary and less problematic.
One may have a gentile turn off the light, whatever type, when it only bothers, but is not dangerous to an even mildly sick person. In any case, when saving a life on Shabbat one's focus should be to do the least possible violations of Shabbat, and to do them via a gentile or an unusual manner-as long as this will not delay helping the person in danger.

Laws 78-84
Prohibited Carrying

Law # 78
On Shabbos, in most cases, carrying an object outside of a building in not permitted. If someone was carrying an object of value and Shabbos began, he or she may bring the object to his house in a number of ways. (However, it is forbidden to pick up an object and do so.) One may give the object to a gentile to carry to the gentile's home and pick it up after Shabbos, or place it on an animal to carry (in a permitted fashion). If a gentile or an animal is not with the Jew, the object may be given to a child under Bar/Bat Mitzvah, or a deaf person, or (and preferably so) a mentally retarded person to carry. One should hand the object over only while the child (or deaf or mentally retarded person) is already in the process of walking, and take it back also only while the child is walking.

Law # 79
If a child is not present, there is a halachic leniency for emergencies that enables one to carry an object for approx. 2 meters. This is done by carrying the object less than 2 meters, and then stopping still for a moment or two and then repeating the process until reaching one's destination. The sole purpose of this standing should be to pause in carrying the object, and not in order to do anything else such as to rearrange the particular object. It is preferable to actually pause from carrying and sit, as opposed to standing. In addition, this leniency only applies to carrying outdoors, but NOT to transferring the object into one's destination. Before stopping at the doorway, one should immediately throw the object inside in an unusual manner.

Law # 80

If one was carrying before Shabbos began, and started to run before Shabbos began, one may continue to run non-stop with this object to one's destination without violating the halacha of carrying. According to some opnions, one can even start running after Shabbos began. Before stopping to run, throw the object inside the building in an unusual manner. (Will wonders never cease?!)

Law # 81
If someone went outside carrying an object of value on Friday, and forgot to return it before Shabbos began, he or she may carry it home in one of the aforementioned manners. Also, if someone went outside close to or after nightfall of Shabbos, and when leaving indoors was oblivious to or forgot that he or she was carrying, the object of value may be returned home in one of these same ways. The reason for these allowances is so that people should not carry in a forbidden manner, which they might tend to in order to save their money. However, in any case where possible, it is absolutely required to personally supervise (and some permit to have a gentile guard) one's object of value until after Shabbos, and not utilize one of these halachic leniencies. Also, one may not use one of these leniencies to carry home a worthless object. In such a case, one should toss away the worthless object in an unusual manner, without ceasing to walk. Also, if someone went outside close to nightfall and was knowingly carrying an object of worth, and forgot to stop carrying it before Shabbos, he or she may not rely on one of these leniencies.

Law # 82
If, after Shabbat has begun, you discover that you are still carrying your wallet, some coins or another mukseh object, if you are in your home or anywhere that carrying is permitted (like a city that has an eruv), you are permitted to walk to any desired safe place and shake out your pocket onto the floor. There is no prohibition, as it was in your pocket from before Shabbat began and also, the carrying was done with your body and not your hands.

Law # 83
On Shabbos, if one found an object outside (even within an eruv), there is no leniency whatsoever to carry it home in any manner. This is because a person does not suffer a loss by not taking the object, he or she simply does not profit from its possession. However, one may guard the object until after Shabbos, or have a gentile do so in his or her place. One is not required to prevent a gentile from carrying a found object to one's destination (instead of guarding it), if this one done of the gentile's own volition.

Law # 84
If a Jew was traveling in a vehicle and Shabbos began, he or she must descend from it as long as there is in no danger by doing so. If the vehicle is large enough to be considered a private dwelling (such as a car or train coach which are more than 4 handbreadths wide and long, and more than 10 handbreadths tall), one must also leave behind any objects that could be carried so as not to violate carrying from one domain to another.

Laws 85-103
The Shabbat Evening Prayers

Law #85
We do not recite the Tachanun penitential prayer during Mincha on Friday afternoon. Similarly, anyone who eats bread on Friday afternoon recites the Shir Hamaalot psalm before the Blessing-After-Meals, and not Al Naharot.

Law #86
On weeknights we do not pray Maariv until it is definitely night time, when the stars are visible. On Shabbat evening, however, we may advance the Evening prayer to any time after "Plag HaMincha" (1¼ relative hours before sunset), utilizing the opinion that then is the beginning of night, with the proviso that Mincha was prayed before Plag HaMincha, so there may be no contradictions. Indeed, it is desireable to pray Maariv for Shabbat while it is still daylight; by doing so we take from the mundane and add to the holy. However, whoever does so, must be very careful to repeat the "Shma Yisrael" prayer at a later time when it is actually night.

Law # 87
Although, as stated last week, it is desireable to pray Maariv for Shabbat while it is still daylight, one may nevertheless pray the Evening prayer at the accustomed time on Shabbat also; "adding to the holy" may be accomplished by simply ceasing early from those work activities forbidden on Shabbat.

Law #88
One who prays Maariv early on Shabbat evening, must be very careful to repeat the "Shma Yisrael" prayer at a later time when it is actually night. It is even forbidden to begin to eat a meal within half an hour of nightfall; one must wait and recite the Shma first. However, one who even during the week prays Maariv early and is accustomed to fulfilling his obligation to say Shma in the evening through his recitation of the "Bedtime Shma" prayer, may rely on this on Shabbat night also and eat the Evening Meal even before reciting the nighttime Shma.

Law #89
The second blessing after the Sh'ma reading differs somewhat from the weekday version (see your Siddur). After this blessing, before kaddish, most congregations add the paragraph that begins "V'shomru bnai yisrael et hashabbat," considering its subject matter to not constitute a digression between the topic of Redemption of the blessing and the beginning of the Amidah prayer, and there is validity to this approach. However, the Chabad custom is not to say this paragraph, considering that any addition constitutes an interruption.

Law #90
In the Friday night Amidah prayer, where it says, "all Yisroel rests on it," there are those who, for mystical reasons, say "it" in the feminine form (Hebrew: "bah"), while on Shabbat morning, both Shacharit and Musaf, they say "it" in the masculine ("bo"), and at Mincha in the plural ("bam").

Law #91
After the Friday night Amidah prayer, it is customary for everyone to repeat the "Vay'chulu" paragraph. The reason is because it is omitted from the Amidah when a festival falls on Shabbat, so since it is necessary to say it on those occasions, we say it every week so as to not make distinctions between Shabbats. Repeating it also helps to fulfill the obligation for saying it for those who do not know how by themselves. It is customary to say it in unison, standing and aloud, as if testifying in a court that G-d is the Creator. An individual praying alone (witnessing requires at least two) should also recite it while standing.

Law #92
After the Amidah, the prayer-leader chants "bircat mei'ain sheva," a sort of abbreviated repetition. Its original purpose was to allow late arrivals to catch up, so as to not have to remain alone and thus be endangered if the shul were in an isolated area. Therefore it is said only in an established shul, but not for a minyan in a temporary location. We continue to say it today, even though nearly all shuls are in sttled areas, and even on a Shabbat following a day of YomTov, when no one comes late to shul. If the congregation, or an individual praying alone, wishes to also say it, they may say the middle of the three paragraphs (i.e., without the opening and closing blessing), and that is the universal custom today.

Law #93
It once happened that a chassid saw in his dream another chassid of his acquaintance who had passed away long before. His face looked chastened. He asked him: "why does your face look chastened?" He answered him: "Because I used to talk when the community was saying 'vayechulu' after the Amida prayer on Shabbat night, and I didn't say it together with them. And also because I used to talk while the chazzan said the blessing 'me'ein sheva' that follows 'vayechulu,' and while he was saying Kaddish till 'amen, yehey shmey rabba' and I did not listen with concentration." This is a lesson that we must be careful in these matters.

Law #94
On Shabbat (or Yom Tov) if, after the first three introductory blessings of the Amidah of Maariv , Shacharit, or Mincha, someone mistakenly began a blessing of the weekday prayer, he should complete it, and only then say the middle blessing of the Shabbat (or Yom Tov) Amidah. This is because there is nothing intrinsically wrong with saying the weekday blessings also on Shabbat, only that the Sages decreed not to trouble people to do so, in honor of the Holy Day. However, if it happens during the Musaf prayer, one must interrupt immediately, because the weekday blessings are not at all relevant to the specially added Musaf prayer.

Law# 95
We learned last week that if after the first three introductory blessings of the Amidah on Shabbat, someone mistakenly began a blessing of the weekday prayer, he must complete it before returning to the Shabbat Amidah. If, however, it was the fourth blessing of the weekday prayer that he began ("Atah honain…"), and he only said the first word, atah, then, if it is the Shabbat Maariv or Mincha prayer where the fourth blessing also begins atah, he may resume immediately with the words of the Shabbat blessing. Even in Shacharit, where the fourth blessing does not begin atah, he may return immediately to the Shabbat blessing, if when he mistakenly said atah he was aware that he was in the midst of the Shabbat prayers. It is considered as if his mistake was that he confused the blessing of Shacharit with those of Maariv and Mincha.

Law# 96
If some one mistakenly begins a weekday blessing during a Shabbat Amidah prayer, this is a bad omen for him. He should examine his deeds and have thoughts of repentance.

Law # 97
If someone mistakenly prayed the entire weekday Amidah on Shabbat, without mentioning the holiness of Shabbat in his prayer, if he already completed his prayer, he must start again from the beginning and pray the appropriate Shabbat prayer. If, however, he did not yet complete his prayer, then he returns to the fourth blessing and say the appropriate blessing for Shabbat and continues from there to the end of the prayer.

Law # 98
If someone mistakenly prayed the entire weekday Amidah on Shabbat, but asserts in it somewhere a mention of the holiness of Shabbat, then he has fulfilled his obligation and needn't pray again, even if his mention of Shabbat was not in a separate blessing. If the person is not sure whether he prayed the weekday or Shabbat prayer, it is unclear whether he should pray again or not.

Law # 99
At the Shabbat Eve prayer, if someone mistakenly prayed the entire weekday amidah, or even if he didn't pray at all, if he listens carefully to every word of the Prayer Leader's recitation of "Brcat mei'ain sheva," he can fulfill his obligation and need not pray again. It is best if he informs the Prayer Leader of his intention before he begins the recitation. However, if he misses all or part of the Prayer Leader's recitation, he should not recite the "Brcat mei'ain sheva" himself in order to fulfill his obligation, as this is designated to be a communal prayer only (although if he mistakenly does so, he need not pray again).

Law #100
If during the Amidah prayer in one of the Shabbat services a person started to pray the middle blessing of one of the other Shabbat services by mistake, if he realizes before completing the blessing, he should immediately interrupt and resume from the beginning of the correct blessing. If, however, he already completed the incorrect blessing, he need not pray again the correct blessing. This is because the most important part of the blessing, the concluding paragraph, is the same in all the services. Unless it is Musaf, in which case he has to say the correct blessing of the Musaf prayer, which cites specifically the Musaf sacrifice.

Law #101
Although it is permitted to add personal requests to the weekday Amidah or to pray an extra Amidah, it is not permitted to do so on Shabbat or YomTov. This is because individual voluntary sacrifices were not brought to the Temple on Shabbat or YomTov.

Law #102
A minority of congregations have preserved the custom of having the prayer leader recite Kiddush over a cup of wine at the end of the prayers. The original intention of this practice was to exempt those visitors who would be eating and sleeping in the shul. Nowadays, even if there were such visitors, they would anyway have to recite their own Kiddush, since the prayer leader recites it only to maintain the tradition. Many great rabbis have donated their personal money in order to purchase the wine for this mitzvah.

Law #103
Some communities read the second chapter of the mishnaic tractate Shabbat during the Friday evening prayer service. It contains the laws of lighting candles and instructions for last-moment reminders before Shabbat. In some prayer books it appears before Maariv, in others after; in Chassidic prayer books it is replaced by a mystical passage on the spiritual significance of the inauguration of Shabbat.

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